Friday, September 5, 2008

Jayaatu Khan, Emperor Wenzong of Yuan

Jayaatu Khan , born Tugh Temür, was the Emperor of China and ruled as emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, khanate of Mongol Empire.

He was the second son of and a Tangut woman. was his elder brother. When his father Khayishan suddenly died and his younger brother inherited khanship in 1311, he and his brother was removed from the central government by his grandmother Dagi and other Khunggirad faction members including Temüder since they were not mothered by Khunggirad khatuns. After Ayurbarwada's son ascended the throne in 1320, Tugh Temür was relegated to Hainan. When Shidibala was assassinated and Yesün Temür Khan took over as khan, his condition was relaxed. He was given the title of Prince of Huai and was moved to Jiangkang and then to Jiangling.

When Yesün Temür Khan died in Shangdu in 1328, Tugh Temür was recalled to Dadu by the Qipchaq commander El Temür since his more influential brother Kuśala stayed in far-away Central Asia. He was installed as grand-khan in Dadu in the 9th month while Yesün Temür's son succeeded to the throne in Shangdu with the support from Yesün Temür's favorite retainer Dawlat Shah. Gaining support from princes and officers in southern Mongolia and Northern China, Dadu-based Tugh Temür eventually won the civil war.

At the same time, however, his elder brother Kuśala gathered support from princes and generals in Mongolia and and entered Khara Khorum with the overwhelming military presence. Realizing disadvantages, Tugh Temür declared abdication. In the next year, El Temür brought the imperial seal to Kuśala in Mongolia and announced Dadu's intent to welcome him. Kuśala ascended to the throne in the north of Khara Khorum and Tugh Temür became Crown Prince. On his way to Dadu, Kuśala met with Tugh Temür in Ongghuchad near Shangdu in the eight month. Only 4 days after a banquet with Tugh Temür, he suddenly died, or was supposedly killed with poison by El Temür since he feared being lost power to princes and officers of Chaghadai Ulus and Mongolia, who followed Kuśala. Tugh Temür was restored to the throne. El Temür purged pro-Kuśala officers and brought power to warloards.

prince Changshi, who would become a khan later, sent 200 captives to Jayaatu as a gift. The Yuan emperor rewarded him with precious stones.

He was just on a string during his latter three-year reign. Warlords' despotic rule clearly marked the decline of the empire. He is known for cultural contribution instead. He ordered to compile an encyclopaedia named ''Jingshi Dadian'', supported Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism and devoted himself in Buddhism. He supervised the construction of the Stupa of Master Zhaozhou in the Buddhist Baolin Temple.

He died in 1332. Although he had a son named El Tegüs, he left a will to make Kuśala's son succeed to the throne. So Kuśala's second son was installed only at the age of six.

Other Mongol khans: , Tarmashirin and Ozbeg paid tributes to the Yuan court during his reign.

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