Buyantu Khan stood out among other Yuan Emperors as an adopter of the . He was mentored by Confucian academic Li Meng.
Buyantu Khan was also known for his reform efforts for the Yuan government. Buyantu Khan's reform efforts included the disbanding of the Department of State Affairs , which resulted in the execution of 5 high-ranking officials, and the reintroduction of the imperial examination system for public officials similar to the one in previous dynasties of China. A race-based quotas were set for these examinations, allowing a certain number of both Mongol and Han Chinese to enter the government as civil officials. For example, starting in 1313 examinations were introduced for prospective officials - testing their knowledge on significant historical works - in 1315 300 appointments went to the court, with an extra quarter of the positions being given to non-Chinese people. These reforms were made at the displeasure of the Mongol nobility.
He also made an alliance with Oljeitu against Esen Buqa I of Chagatai Khanate, who attacked the Yuan forces, and defeated the latter in 1316. After Esen Buqa's death, Kebek mitigated the situation with Yuan Dynasty.